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Thesis: standards and formats: Quotations and footnotes

Identifying the standards and recommendations for presentation, being able to write in accordance with page layout and typographic rules.


A quotation is mentioned as a footnote when it is used only once.

A quotation is mentioned in a list of references at the end of the chapter, when it bears on the whole chapter or if it has been quoted several times. The note warrants the exact correspondence between the extract and its reference.

The bibliographic reference appears in the bibliography if the document is relevant to the whole book or topic of the work. The note plays the same role in establishing the correspondence between the quotation and its reference.


Quoted text is placed between quotation marks or in a style of characters different from the text to be properly highlighted. They are followed by the author’s name and the year of publication of the quoted document, between brackets.

  •  A short quotation (3 lines maximum) will be incorporated into the text.
  •  A long quotation will be separated from the text by an extra space, inserted with an extra indent and without quotation marks.
  •  A truncated quotation is marked by ellipses between square brackets [...]

Quotations of poems over 15 lines will be numbered every 5th line.

For the presentating quotations, please refer to the Strasbourg Urfist help page


Quotations, quoted publications and notes are marked by a number in superscript above the line, or between brackets, after the name or sentence in question.

This number is attributed according to its order of appearance in the text and marks one single quotation.

A footnote may also contain one or several bibliographic reference(s), as well as some information complementing the text.

For the inserting a footnote, please visit the tutorial proposed by Lyon 2 University